The genetic deterioration of the locally adopted varieties at factory level and also use of poor quality seed resulted in to spread of viral disease like Yellow Leaf Disease (YLD) and a consortium of tissue borers leading to poor yields. The recent Diagnostic Teams Survey Reports also indicated more than 50% spread of YLD in many parts of the country and cautioned to focus on quality seed production. NBV, SD’s efforts on Comprehensive Three-Tier Sugarcane Seed Production Program (CTSSPP), duly adopting Tissue Culture seedlings, assured seed treatment practices, coupled with recently popularized nursery practices for the production of Polytray Raised Seedlings (PRS) indicates the need for adoption by the Sugar Industry for their sustainability.
Sugarcane is a widely grown commercial crop in India. It provides employment to over a million people directly or indirectly besides contributing significantly to the national exchequer. Sugarcane cultivation is carried out with an intention to achieve better profit to the farmers and sustain the economic viability of sugar industry in the long run. Various factors are influencing the cane yield and dragging it either static or declining. Nowadays, due to increased cost of cultivation and poor yield, farmers are reluctant to grow cane. Various yield contributing parameters listed below are vested in the hands of farmers to increase the cane yield which could enhance net profit and encourage the farmers to continue in cane cultivation.
A field experiment was conducted during the seasons of 2014-15 and 2015–16 at S. Nijalingappa Sugar Institute Belagavi, Karnataka. The experiment consisted of three methods of fertilizer application, viz., surface application, ploughsole method and ploughsole method with vermicompost (1:1 ratio on dry weight basis) along with three fertilizer levels, viz., 50 % RDF (125: 37.5: 95 kg N, P2O5, K2O ha-1), 75 % RDF (187.75: 56.25: 142.5 N, P2O5, K2O ha-1) 100 % RDF (250:75:190 kg N, P2O5, K2O ha-1) and split application of potassium, 100 % K at basal and 50 % K as basal & 50 % K at earthing up. At harvest, significantly higher cane yield in plant and ratoon crop was recorded in ploughsole method with vermicompost (113.56 and 99.75 t ha-1, respectively) followed by only ploughsole method (106.18 and 94.31 t ha-1, respectively) over surface application (99.78 and 88.01 t ha-1, respectively). Among the different fertilizer levels, significantly higher cane yield of plant and ratoon crop was recorded with 100 per cent RDF (122.60 and 109.21 t ha-1, respectively) compared to other fertilizer levels. Split application of potassium, 50 per cent as basal and 50 per cent at earthing up recorded significantly higher cane yield in plant and ratoon crop (109.51 and 95.79 t ha-1, respectively) than basal application of potassium (103.50 and 92.26 t ha-1, respectively).
Field trial was conducted at Agricultural Research Station, Perumallapalle, during 2016-17 to study the effect of type of seedlings, time of planting of seedlings, nitrogen doses on yield and quality of sugarcane. The experimental results revealed that among type of seedlings, single node seedlings recorded higher cane yield (97.5 t/ha) compared to bud chip seedlings (87.9 t/ha). Among different months of planting, January month of planting recorded higher cane yield (96.2 t/ha) compared to February (92.7 t/ha), March (87.2 t/ha).With regard to nitrogen top dressing 125% of recommended dose of nitrogen at four splits that is at the time of planting,30,60 and 90 days after planting recorded higher cane yield (92.6 t/ha) compared to 100 % RDN at four splits that is at the time of planting,30,60 and 90 days after planting (89.8 t/ha).